Geography Area: 45,226 sq. km. (17,462 sq. mi.)
Cities: Capital--Tallinn (pop. 396,000), situated in the north of the country, on the Gulf of Finland. Other cities--university town of Tartu (101,500); the primarily Russian-speaking industrial towns of Narva (67,100) and Kohtla-J�rve (46,000) in the north-east of Estonia; P�rnu on the western coast (44,400) and Viljandi in the rural south (20,509). The last population census was held in 2000.
Terrain: Mostly flat, with some undulating terrain in the east and southeast, average elevation 50 m. Steep limestone banks and 1,520 islands mark the coastline. Land use--12.05% arable land, 47.4% forest and woodland, 22% swamps and bogs, 18.55% other. Coastal waters are somewhat polluted.
Climate: Temperate, with four seasons. Annual precipitation averages 50-75 cm.